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Merge branches

First, checkout the branch you want to merge in, then run:

git merge branch-from

Merges the commits from "branch-from" into the currently checked out branch.

Delete local or remote branch

# Delete remote branch
git push origin --delete branch-to-delete

# Delete local branch
git branch -d branch-to-delete

Deletes the branch called "my-branch-to-delete".

Create a branch and checkout (switch) to it

git checkout -b my-new-branch

Creates and checks out (switch) to a new branch named "my-new-branch".

Finalize the merge commit after resolving conflicts

git commit

Concludes a merge after fixing conflicts.

Delete local branch

# Delete local branch
git branch -d branch-to-delete

# Delete local branch forcefully
git branch -D branch-to-delete

Deletes the local branch called "my-branch-to-delete". Note that if the branch is not merged upstream, you need to force the deletion using the "-D" option instead of "-d".

Delete remote branch

git push origin --delete branch-to-delete

Deletes the branch called "my-branch-to-delete" from the "origin" remote.

List both local and remote branches

git branch -a

Show the latest N commits

git log -3

Show the log containing commit history

# Show all commits
git log

# Show the most recent 5 commits
git log -5

# Show commits on one line
git log --oneline

# Show a patch with changes introduced by each commit
# Limiting the result to the most recent two commits
git log -p -2

Provide a message with your commit

git commit -m "Commit Message"

Ignore files and directories

Edit the .gitignore file (create one if it absent)

# Ignore all txt files
*.txt

# Track "file1.txt" even if all other txt files are ignored
!file1.txt

# Ignore a file called "credentials" in the current directory
/credentials

# Ignore all files in any directory named "logs"
logs/

# ignore all txt files in the "logs" folder, but not "logs/apache/log.txt"
logs/*.txt

# ignore all ".txt" files in the "logs" directory and any of its subdirectories
logs/**/*.txt

Show the log, one line for each commit

git log --oneline

Change the message and/or files of the last commit

Using the information in your staging area to amend the last commit

git commit --amend

If no change is made to the staging area since your last commit, only the message will be updated. WARNING: use this only for local commits that have not been pushed to a remote. Amending pushed commits will cause problems for your collaborators.

Pull data from a remote repository

# Pull from "origin" remote
git pull

# Pull from "my-remote-name" remote
git pull my-remote-name

This command will try to fetch and then merge the remote branch into your local branch.

Create a new branch

git branch my-new-branch

Creates a branch named "my-new-branch".

Switch to a different (existing) branch using "git checkout"

git checkout develop

Checks out (switch) to an existing branch named "develop".

Push data to a remote repository

# Push the current branch on the remote repository
git push

# Push the main (a.k.a. master) branch to the main branch on the "origin" remote
git push origin main

Mark the file as resolved after a merge conflict

git add myFile.txt

Marks the "myFile.txt" as resolved after a merge conflict.

Fetch data from a remote repository

# Fetch from "origin" or the configured upstream branch
git fetch

# Fetch all branches from "my-remote-name" remote
git fetch my-remote-name

# Fetch "branch1" from "my-remote-name" remote
git fetch my-remote-name branch1

Downloads data from the remote repository into your local repository, without trying to merge anything with your work.

Add remote repositories

git remote add my-remote-name https://gitcheatsheet.org/example-git-repository.git

Add file or directory to staging

# Add single file
git add file.txt

# Add multiple files
git add file1.txt file2.txt

# Add all text files in current dir
git add *.txt

# Add files in "my-dir"
git add my-dir

Adds files to staging.

Revert a commit

git revert abc123

Reverts changes introduced by that commit "abc123" by creatting another commit that is the "opposite" of "abc123".

List the available local branches

git branch

To see both local and remote branches, use "-a".

Abort a merge

git merge --abort

Cancels the merge process and tries to go back to the state before the merge.

List only remote branches

git branch -r

To see both local and remote branches, use "-a".

List the available branches with details about the upstream branch and last commit message

git branch -vv

Using "-v" instead of "-vv" shows less information.

Unstage file using "git reset"

git reset HEAD fileToUnstage.txt

Unstages the file without changing the file contents. It will still be seen as modified, but not staged for commit. Note: this is an alternative to the "git restore" command, which was introduced in Git version 2.23.0.

Untrack files from staging area, without removing them from the working tree

git rm --cached file1.txt file2.txt

Untrack files AND remove them from working tree

git rm file1.txt file2.txt

Rebase the current branch

# Regular rebase
git rebase other-branch

# Interactive rebase
git rebase -i other-branch

Rewrites current branch's history so that it has all the commits of "other-branch" and then reapplies the changes in commits that were made in the current branch before the rebase. WARNING: since rebasing rewrites history, you should only use it on local branches.

Commit changes to the local repository

git commit

This will open your registerd text editor to allow writing a commit message. Once the editor is closed, the commit will be performed.

Unstage file using "git restore"

The "restore" command was introduced in Git version 2.23.0

git restore --staged fileToUnstage.txt

Unstages the file without changing the file contents. It will still be seen as modified, but not staged for commit.

Show the commits that affect a specific file or directory

git log -- path/to/file

Resolve conflicts visually using a merge tool

git mergetool

Opens up the configured merge tool for resolving conflicts. Additionally, depending on the tool you used, you might need to mark the files as resolved using "git add".

Revert file using "git checkout --"

git checkout -- fileToRevert.txt

Replaces the file in the working directory by the latest staged or commited file. WARNING: any local changes made to the file are lost. Git replaces the file with the last staged or committed version.

Show the status of the files in the current branch

git status

Shows valuable information, like which files are Untracked, Unmodified, Modified, Staged or Unstaged in the current branch, the current branch name, or whether the current branch is up-to-date, ahead or behind the remote branch.

List the configured remotes

git remote

Show the configured remotes together with their URLs

git remote -v

Remove a remote

git remote remove remote-name

Removes "remote-name", together with all remote-tracking branches and configuration settings related to that remote.

Show the changes of both staged and unstaged files since the last commit

git diff HEAD

Shows what changed since the last commit (both staged and unstaged files). Note: you can use "--cached" instead of "--staged". They mean the same thing.

Show the changes of files that are staged

git diff --staged

Shows what changed since the last commit and is staged for commit. Note: you can use "--cached" instead of "--staged". They mean the same thing.

Reset the staging area to a specific commit

git reset abc123

Goes back to commit "abc123" by resetting the staging area to match it, preserving the changed files in the working directory. WARNING: This deletes commits subsequent to "abc123".

Filter the log entries by commit message containing a string

Searching for the text "hello" in commit messages:

git log --grep="hello" -i

Note: The "-i" option is for case-insensitive search. You can also ad --oneline to make the log more compact.

Clone an existing (remote) repository in the current directory

git clone https://gitcheatsheet.org/example-git-repository.git

This will copy the remote repository into your current working directory.

Reset the working directory to the state of a specific commit

git reset --hard abc123

Resets the working directory to the state of commit "abc123". WARNING: This deletes uncommitted changes and also deletes commits subsequent to "abc123".

Filter the log entries by date range

Displaying commits made between 2021-01-01 (inclusive) and 2021-02-01 (exclusive):

# Using before and after
git log --after="2021-01-01" --before="2021-02-01"

# Using since and until
git log --since="2021-01-01" --until="2021-02-01"

Note: The "--after" and "--since" results INCLUDE the specified date ( >= ), while the "--before" and "--until" EXCLUDE the specified date ( < ).

Rename a remote

git remote rename old-remote-name new-remote-name

Renames the "old-remote-name" into "new-remote-name".

Show the current branch name and other information

git status

Shows the current branch name together with other valuable information.

Show whether the current branch is up-to-date, ahead or behind the remote branch

git status

Shows whether the current branch is up-to-date, ahead or behind the remote branch, together with other valuable information.

Create a new local repository

git init

This will create a .git directory.

Show the changes of files that are not yet staged for commit

git diff

Shows what changed since the last commit but is not yet staged.

Filter the log entries by committer name

git log --committer='John'

Note: the command will display any committer that contains the string John, e.g. "John Doe" or "Johnny".

Show a patch with changes introduced by each commit

git log -p -2

Note: Using -2 to limit the result to the most recent two commits.

Show the log as a graph

git log --oneline --graph

The --oneline option is added for readability.

Filter the log entries by author name

git log --author='John'

Note: the command will display any author that contains the string John, e.g. "John Doe" or "Johnny".

Inspect a remote

git remote show origin

Inspects the "origin" remote.

Show the currently configured user name

git config user.name

From the documentation: "Options --system, --global, --local, --worktree and --file <filename> can be used to tell the command to read from only that location".

Edit the global configuration

git config --global --edit

Track new or modified files

# Add single file
git add file.txt

# Add multiple files
git add file1.txt file2.txt

# Add all text files in current dir
git add *.txt

# Add files in "my-dir"
git add my-dir

Begins tracking files by adding them to staging.

Add all files to staging

# Stage new, modified and deleted files
git add .

# Stage new and modified, ignore deleted files
git add --ignore-removal .

# Stage modified and deleted files, ignore new files
git add -u

Show the email address configured for a specific location (e.g. worktree, local, global, system)

# Worktree
git config --worktree user.email

# Local (current repository)
git config --local user.email

# Global
git config --global user.email

# System
git config --system user.email

The precedence is: worktree, local, global, system.

Set the user name for all repositories

git config --global user.name "John Doe"

Set the email address for all repositories

git config --global user.email [email protected]

Show the user name configured for a specific location (e.g. worktree, local, global, system)

# Worktree
git config --worktree user.name

# Local (current repository)
git config --local user.name

# Global
git config --global user.name

# System
git config --system user.name

The precedence is: worktree, local, global, system.

Show the currently configured email address

git config user.email

From the documentation: "Options --system, --global, --local, --worktree and --file <filename> can be used to tell the command to read from only that location".

Clear all the stash entries

git stash clear

Drop a stash entry from the stash list

# Drop the LATEST stash entry (index 0)
git stash drop

# Drop a SPECIFIC stash entry (index 1)
git stash drop [email protected]{1}

Cherry-pick commits

git cherry-pick abc123

Merges only the commit "abc123" into the current branch. Additionally, you can use the "-x" option to automatically append a "cherry picked from commit" to the commit message, specifying which commit has been picked.

Pop a stash entry and apply its contents

# Pop the LATEST stash entry (index 0)
git stash pop

# Pop a SPECIFIC stash entry (index 1)
git stash pop [email protected]{1}

Apply a stash entry to the current working tree

# Apply the LATEST stash entry (index 0)
git stash apply

# Apply SPECIFIC stash entry (index 1)
git stash apply [email protected]{1}

List the stash entries

git stash list

Displays the list of stash entries.

Push files to stash

# Stash local modifications
git stash push -m "My Stash Message"

# Include untracked files
git stash push -u -m "Including untracked files"

# Stash only specified files
git stash push -u -m "Stashing specific files" -- file1.txt file2.txt

Moves the local modifications into a new stash entry. Using "-u" includes untracked files. The message provided with "-m" is optional.

Edit the local configuration

Inside the repository that you want to configure, run:

git config --local --edit

Set the email address for the current repository

Inside the repository that you want to configure, run:

git config --local user.email [email protected]

The --local parameter is optional, as it is the default.

Set the user name for the current repository

Inside the repository that you want to configure, run:

git config --local user.name "John Doe"

The --local parameter is optional, as it is the default.

Set up the default text editor

git config --global core.editor "'C:/path/to/executable' -parameters"

Edit the system configuration

git config --system --edit

Show the file modifications saved in the stash

# Show files in the LATEST stash entry (index 0), IGNORING untracked
git stash show

# Show files in the LATEST stash entry (index 0), INCLUDING untracked
git stash show --include-untracked

# Show files in SPECIFIC stash entry (index 1)
git stash show --include-untracked [email protected]{1}

# Show ONLY UNTRACKED files in stash entry (index 1)
git stash show --only-untracked [email protected]{1}

# Show ONLY UNTRACKED files in stash entry (index 1)
### Compatible with older versions of Git
git show [email protected]{1}^3:

Note: older versions of Git do not support the --include-untracked option.

Revert a file using "git restore"

git restore fileToRevert.txt

Replaces the file in the working directory by the latest staged or commited file. WARNING: any local changes made to the file are lost. Git replaces the file with the last staged or committed version. Note: the "restore" command was introduced in Git version 2.23.0.

Move files

git mv someFile.txt newFile.txt

List all the configured variables

git config --list

From the documentation: "Options --system, --global, --local, --worktree and --file <filename> can be used to tell the command to read from only that location".

Associate Notepad++ as the default editor

git config --global core.editor "'C:/Program Files (x86)/Notepad++/notepad++.exe' -multiInst -notabbar -nosession -noPlugin"

Associate VisualStudio Code as the default text editor

git config --global core.editor "code --wait"

Add a repository inside another repository (using subtrees)

git subtree add --prefix my-nested-repo https://gitcheatsheet.org/example-git-repository.git main --squash

Creates a "clone" of the "main" branch of the remote repository into a local directory called "my-nested-repo", squashing the history of the "cloned" repository. Note: instead of specifying the url directly, you can use a remote name, if configured.

Associate TextMate as the default editor

git config --global core.editor "mate -w"

Push a subtree

git subtree push --prefix my-nested-repo https://gitcheatsheet.org/example-git-repository.git main

Pushes the changes made in "my-nested-repo" into the "main" branch of the specified repository url. Note: instead of specifying the url directly, you can use a remote name, if configured.

Pull a subtree

git subtree pull --prefix my-nested-repo https://gitcheatsheet.org/example-git-repository.git main --squash

Pulls the "main" branch of the repository specified in the url into a local directory called "my-nested-repo", squashing the history of the pulled repository. Note: instead of specifying the url directly, you can use a remote name, if configured.

Associate Sublime Text as the default editor

git config --global core.editor "'C:/Program Files (x86)/sublime text 3/subl.exe' -w"

Associate Atom as the default text editor

git config --global core.editor "atom --wait"